Create a RasterLayer from a TransitionLayer with a call to the generic function raster. The n x n transition matrix of the TransitionLayer is transformed to form the values n cells of a raster.

# S4 method for TransitionLayer
raster(x, reduceMethod = "NZcolMeans")



a Transition* object


character for the method to reduce the transition matrix. See details


a RasterLayer


The following methods to ‘reduce’ the transition matrix are available with the optional argument reduceMethod):

  • colSums

  • rowSums

  • colMeans

  • rowMeans

  • NZcolMeans

  • NZrowMeans

The latter two methods only take into account the non-zero entries in the transition matrix. The default is NZcolMeans.


#create a new raster and set all its values to unity.
r <- raster(nrows=18, ncols=36)
r <- setValues(r,runif(ncell(r),0,1))

#create a Transition object from the raster
tr1 <- transition(r,mean,8)

asf <- function(x) max(x) - x[1] + x[2]
tr2 <- transition(r,asf,8, symm=FALSE)

#create RasterLayer objects
r1 <- raster(tr1)
r2 <- raster(tr2)
r3 <- raster(tr1, "colMeans")